You are required to create a Fusion kinematic device you can later produce (using Deakin’s technology, such as laser cutting, 3D printing, etc.
You can then test.
* You must design a rotating component that causes periodic motion in another part of the device. Ideally, this motion should not be symmetric.
* You must design it to allow for future testing, i.e.
You must plan it with room for sensors.
This item is a report on the design of the device.
This report should also address all aspects of the device and show that it meets the design criteria (manufacturable at Deakin, testable, rotating parts and have at most one component with subsequent periodic motion).
Also, the report will include details about how the device would have been manufactured including manufacturing costs.
This design addresses power transmission from one location to another.
There are several mechanisms to transmit power, such as crank chain mechanism or spring.
A spring is an elastic material that expands in response to load, and then returns to its original shape upon removal.
It absorbs shocks, vibrations, and loads. To some extent, it can also be dampened.
It can store potential energy and absorbs energy.
The suspension system’s ability to store and absorb strain energy is enhanced by the springs.
The most basic form of spring used in vehicle suspension systems is the leaf spring.
These springs are also called flat, laminated or carriage springs.
Semi-elliptic is the most popular type of leaf spring in heavy and lightweight automobiles.
Multi-leaf springs have multiple steps (called blades), while mono-leaf springs only have one step.
The spring’s absorbability is increased if there are more steps.
Heavy vehicles can use multi-leaf spring, while lighter vehicles can use mono leaf spring.
The camber is initially used to give springs a tendency bend under loading conditions.
The leaf spring is designed to work under two assumptions: uniform strength, and uniform width.
The master leafspring is the longest, with eyes at its ends. Graduated leaves are the remaining steps.
A gear transmits power to one shaft from another.
A gear is a rotating machine that has teeth along its periphery.
The shaper should be the same for all teeth that are used to mesh gears. This ensures proper transmission of power and motion.
Two gears are necessary to transfer motion from one shaft into another. More than two will result in a gear train that has many applications in the automotive industry.
One gear that is smaller will rotate more quickly than the one that is larger.
One gear is called the driver gear, while the second gear is called the driven gear.
Below is a diagram of the power transmission mechanism.
This figure shows the type of motion transmission.
This mechanism uses two axial to hold the power transmission plates in their respective places.
The connecting shaft was used to connect the two plates with the connecting angle.
The above figure shows the top view from the power mechanism created in this work.
This is the front view showing the power transmission mechanism as it was in the current work.
It is easy to see all the components of the power transfer mechanism from the front view.
Below are 2D views of various parts of power transmission system.
Figure 1-a depicts the connecting angle and figure 1-b the connecting shaft.
Figure 1-c depicts the connecting plate, power transmission plate, and the top portion of this assembly that includes an axial holder as well as power transmission plate and connecting plates.
Motion of The Power Transmission Assembly
Below is the right view for the power transmission assembly.
This assembly’s axial holder will stay on the assembly, while all other parts will rotate in an angle.
The bottom power transmission plate rotates on its axis. Due to the motion of the power transmitting plate, the bottom connecting plate will also turn. The same will happen for the upper part of your body.
This complete rotation will result in a rotatory motion for the assembly.
This rotatory motion can either be circular or spherical, depending on the angle.
This motion is applicable to applications in which any device must rotate at any angle.
Shokrieh (2003 spring optimization) and Rezaei (2015) dynamic characteristics.
Different materials have been tested to determine the best material.
Pozhilarasu & Pillai (2013) studied conventional steel as well as composite material.
In their analysis they used GFRP (glass fibre reinforced plastic)
Aishwarya et al. (2014) carried out vibration analysis on assemblies made from composite material.
Kumar and colleagues (2014) carried out optimization analysis on material for large-weight vehicles.
They used ANSYS to perform their study. The results were compared between the composite material and the conventional material.
Anuraag (2012) and Sivaram (2012) aimed their analysis at dynamic analysis and shock analysis of springs made of composite materials that have different layers.
Unigraphics software NX7.5 was used by the team to model their leafspring.
They used ANSYS to analyze their study.
They performed static, dynamic, shock and combination analysis.
The results were analysed using five layered and two-layered composite leaf springs.
Two-layered leaf springs showed maximum displacement, with a range of 101.5mm to 80.23mm.
Vehicles with more layers were subject to more compressive strain than those with fewer layers.
They discovered that shock first increases rather than decreases in vehicles with less layers. Additionally, shock also increases with time.
Vehicles with more layers show a decrease in deflection than an increase in time.
Mahdi et al (2006) as well as Kumar & Teja (2011) analysed the suspension systems for vehicles that had an elliptic Spring.
They performed different types of experiments to examine spring behaviour. Then, they did numerical analysis of the same variable sets and compared them.
They concluded that experiments are the best way to achieve the best results.
Amrute et al. (2013) and AI Qureshi (2001), conducted studies on composite leaf springs.
They looked at a composite spring and analysed it under different parameters.
Rupesh (2015) and Zhang (2014) carried out Analysis on Performance of Leaf Spring Rotary Engine.
They produced a leaf spring engine simulation that was different based on the rotor structure.
Durus et. al (2015) developed a new method for verification and fatigue life prediction using z type leafsprings.
They investigated the effects of different loading conditions.
They examined the results of fracture and then created an S–N curve.
The study was also done using a finite element instrument. They found that the FE tool yields the best results.
Fuentes et al (2009) carried out premature fracture of leaf springs for automobiles, which was used in Venezuelan buses.
They also performed failure analysis, fracture analysis on the Venezuelan bus.
They also did Chemical analysis, macroscopic inspection, and hardness testing.
Analysis of Deflection
Spring stiffness refers to the required load to create a unit of deflection.
The Newton/meter (N/m), is the unit of spring stiffness.
Production of the Parts
Below is a flow chart of the manufacturing process of the parts. After selecting the raw materials, cutting the material to the required size and shape will be completed. Finally, various tests and operations will then be performed on the material depending on the requirements.
The above assembly can be analysed using finite element analysis to identify regions where the most stress and deflection is occurring.
FEM is a powerful tool that helps to understand the model and its accuracy before it can be used in production.
You can do this with software such as Abaqus, ANSYS or other available on the market.
For further analysis, you can import geometry from Autodesk.
In the current study, two materials were considered.
An alternative material was E-glass/Epoxy as well as conventional steel.
In the current work, weight reduction can be achieved by using Eglass/Epoxy.
Table 1 and table 2 display the mechanical properties and compositions for conventional steel (EN47 Steel).
E-glass/Epoxy mechanical property are shown in table 3.
Table 1 Steel (EN47), mechanical characteristics
Young’s modulus e
Table 2 Chemical composition (EN47)
Table 3 Epoxy/E-glass material properties
9 E8 Pascal
It is evident from the table above that the density of E-glass material compared to conventional steel material is significantly lower.
The same geometry will be used to compare two materials. E-glass transmission assemblies weigh less than those made from conventional steel.
Aishwarya A.L. Kumar A. E. & Murthy B.V. (2014). Free vibration analysis of composite leaves springs. International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology. 4(1): 95-97.
H.A. Ai-Qureshi, 2001, Automobile Leaf Spring from Compound Materials, Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 118(1-3), 56-61.
Amrute, A. V. and Karlus, E. N. and Rathore, R. K. (2013). Design and Assessment of Multi Leaf Spring. International Journal of Research in Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering.
Durus M. and Kirkayak L. Ceyhan M.
Kozan K., (2015), Fatigue-Life Prediction of Z Type Leaf Spring and a new approach to verification method. Procedia Engineering 101: 143-150.
Kalwaghe R. N. & Sontakke K. R. (2014), Design and Analysis of Composite Spring by using FEA and ANSYS. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research. 3(5), 74–77.
Rao E. V., Kumar A. T. N. V. & Krishna G. S. V. (2015), Design and Material Optimization of Heavy Vehicle Leave Spring, International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology 4, 80-88.
Kumar S. Y. N. V. & Teja M. V. (2011), Design and Analysis of Composite Leaf Spring. International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 2(1): 97-100.
Mahdi E. Alkoles O.M.S. Hamouda A.M.S.S. Sahari B.B. Yonus G., and Hamouda A.M.S.S.
(2012), Dewangan R., Yadav M., and Yadav N., Study of Parabolic Leaf Springs by Finite Element Method Method & Design of Experiments. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, 2(4): 1920-1922.
A. Pateriya and M. Khan (2015). Structural and thermal analyses of spring-loaded safety valves using FEM. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Robotics Research 4(1), 430-434.
Pozhilarasu F. & Pillai T. P. (2013), Performance analysis of steel and composite leaf springs and fabrication of composite leaves springs, International Journal of Engineering Research Science & Technology 2(3), 102-109.
Sivaram B. V. (2012), Comparison of Dynamic, Static and Shock Analysis for Two and Five Layered Composite Leaf Springs, Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 2(5), 692-697.
Saini P., Goel, and Kumar D., (2013), Design and Analysis of Composite Leaf Spring for Light Vehicles, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 1-10.
Shokrieh M. M. & Rezaei D. (2003). Optimization and analysis of a composite leafspring, Composite Structures, 60. 317-325.
Zhang Y., Zou ZX., Yuan CC-H & Wang DJ, (2014), Analysis of Performance of Leaf Spring Rotary Engine. Energy Procedia 61, 984-989.
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