Role Of Science And Inclusion In Primary Education

Question:

Discuss the role and importance of science and inclusion within primary education.

Answer:

Introduction

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Science and its Importance in Today’s World

Everyday life involves the application of technologies and products that were developed scientifically.

According to a University of Texas Arlington study, public policy is made based on scientific evidence.

Lederman & Abell (2014) also argue that science is based on the complexity of the natural world and its environment.

Technology is now a major factor in the world (University of Texas Arlington 2017 September 8). This makes it imperative that science-based knowledge be available to all.

Children will have a greater chance of succeeding if they are exposed to scientific concepts (NewScientist 2016 August 12).

Young children should be exposed to science. This will encourage them to become interested in science (NewScientist 2016).

Government must put more effort to introduce science to children young, preferably at primary school (Harlen 2017, 2017).

To allow science education to be included in early school stages, the Australian curriculum has been rewritten (Tytler, Symington, & Smith, 2011.

The purpose of this study is to examine how science contributes to solving real-life problems.

Science and Student Life

Science can be used in every day and anywhere.

According to the “University of Texas Arlington”, Sep 8, 2017, there are many examples in which students use science in their daily lives.

Examples of scientifically designed products that are commonly used include buses for transportation to school.

Complex mechanical engineering innovation and works result in buses.

Children use the sidewalks, lighting, pavements and infrastructures at school. The scientific models are used to determine the classroom design (University of Texas Arlington 2017 September 8).

The engineering of communication and entertainment technologies such as smartphones, computers, and tablets is the key to home (University of Texas Arlington September 8, 2017).

Science is the study of nature. It aims to explain how things work and how they got there.

A set of steps is used to gather evidence in science. These include asking questions, reviewing available information, developing a decent explanation, connecting the findings, and relaying reliable, evidence-based information (University of Texas Arlington, September 8, 2017).

The universe is complex and there are many questions.

The majority of problems are solved using scientific concepts and experimental methods (Watson 2013).

This is why science should be the main subject for children, since it gives the knowledge needed to solve the problems arising from the natural curiosity instinct of humans (Watson 2013).

Science has played a significant role in explaining the chemical reactions and the structures of organic compounds and inorganic compounds over the past. (William, Smith & Hashemi, 2011.

Therefore, it is obvious that science was used to solve problems during the classical period (Watson 2013).

One example is the calendar that ancient Greeks used to plan their lives was based on star and moon observations.

Old farmers gained a lot from the invention and use of a calendar to plan for seasons and other activities.

William, Smith & Hashemi (2011) assert that science played a crucial role in the evolution of civilisation.

Scientists discovered patterns and the order in which days and months are ordered, and therefore the calendar.

Science education should therefore be emphasized in schools, as it explains fundamental concepts and the origins and purpose of civilisations (William, Smith & Hashemi,2011).

There are many scientific and technological researches that aim to resolve chronic diseases and other problems that affect humans (Okano, Yamanaka, 2014).

Stem cell researches are a key technology currently in development.

The potential applications of stem cells technology are a breakthrough in biology (Okano, Yamanaka (2014)).

This technology will also be used by scientists to cure diseases like Parkinson’s disease, heart attacks and spinal injuries (Okano & Yamanaka (2014)).

Stem technology, for example, has been used to fight leukaemia. In this case, the leukaemia cells are constantly replaced by healthy cells. (Okano, Yamanaka, 2014.

For future problem solving, science education is crucial in order to be able fight against problems that affect humanity.

Technology knowledge is particularly promising for career opportunities, so science education is the only route to technology-based careers.

Science Ignorances

Allen (2014) stated that there were many misconceptions regarding primary education.

Some students misunderstand the concept.

“A misconception is a belief about science that has not been scientifically proved to be correct” (Gooding & Metz 2011, 2011).

Krisell (2015) further explained that misinformation can result from poor language use, lack of examples in explaining concepts, false logic, textbooks, or inefficient teaching methods.

Misunderstandings can lead to children having negative attitudes towards science and poor performances (Gooding & Metz (2011)

Gooding and Metz (2011) stated that the most common misconceptions about science are topics such as the size, density, particulate nature or matter, and the shape of earth.

According to the University of Texas Arlington (September 8, 2017, misconceptions can develop early in life.

Children at primary school are taught about sun rise/sun set (Allen, 2014).

The children can see the sun moving about the earth as a result.

Higher education science presents facts that demonstrate that the earth revolves about the sun (Allen, 2014).

These contradictions should be eliminated as they discourage kids from studying science.

According to the University of Texas Arlington (September 8, 2017, kids develop a basic concept within a matter of minutes after they enroll in school.

Therefore, it is crucial to educate students facts at an early stage.

Science Education Benefits To Students

According to a study (NewScientist 2016 August 12), children benefit from being exposed to scientific concepts. This helps them to expand their science knowledge naturally.

A study by NewScientist, August 12, 2016 shows that children are more curious and open to exploring the world when they have fun.

Playful games allow children to ask questions, speculate, and even pose questions about the natural world, solar systems, and how they are affected by chemical and physical processes.

The game encourages children to be curious about the behaviours of living materials and things.

Krisell (2015) promotes play-based learning because it encourages discovery.

Krisell (2015) also encourages explorations, support questions and creativity when solving everyday problems.

Krisell (2015) cites the excellent example of a teaching method that involves teaching children to play.

Students will be more interested in learning science when they are taught through a class-based method.

Science is the most interesting subject. It allows for lessons to be conducted in many natural settings, and it supports play-based learning (Hurd&Anderson, 2017).

Teachers play a crucial role in teaching, and the activities that they engage in are the learning moments for a lifetime (Hurd, Anderson, 2017).

Hurd & Anderson (2017) advise teachers to help students explore basic science experiments in their free time.

National Research Council (2011) offers samples of simple tests, such as cause and effect, that are appropriate for children.

Fensham & Gunstone (2012) stated that early childhood teachers should have practical content as well as create bewildering experiments.

Science is an engaging subject that children can engage with at all levels of their lives.

Science also offers endless tests that can be used to gain new knowledge.

University of Texas Arlington (September 8th 2017) states that science is one of the most important subjects and has universal applicability.

Science encourages children’s ability to think critically and problem-solve (University of Texas Arlington 2017, September 8)

Student becomes more involved in the classroom and community as a result.

Student participation in class experiments is one example (National Research Council (2011)

Nelson-Jones’ (2013) study concluded that science helps children develop life skills.

In science classroom debates, for example, children learn how articulate and defend specific ideas.

Sadler (2011) claims that the student will be more able to understand if the argument is supported by evidence.

Additionally, science concepts and experiments can take time to observe. Students learn patience and how to draw conclusions with the given evidence (Sadler 2011).

Nelson-Jones (2013) believes that the science-based knowledge and patience can be applied to everyday life.

Science education is important because it fosters leadership skills and communication skills.

A strong, evidence-based stand makes a child a responsible citizen (Nelson Jones 2013, 2013).

Popkewitz, 2012. Science exposure in the early stages can help to influence future interest (Popkewitz 2012).

Popkewitz (2012) cited St Francis Xavier as an example. He said “show me a child until he’s seven,” which refers to the interplay between nurture and nature.

Popkewitz (2012) describes the scenario as a developmental stage of life in which children learn from nature and are nurtured.

Popkewitz (2012) refers to “stem-education” principles.

The emphasis of “stem education” is on science subjects such physics, mathematics (SuccessfulSTEM Education, 2018).

Study “Successful STEM Ed (2018 n.d.”)” revealed that the primary years are when children develop STEM-related interests and career choices.

Taylor & Cranton (2012) claim that stem learning helps pupils improve in many key areas of their life.

The first is that the children develop critical thinking and observational and cognitive skills. They also have better spatial and visual processing skills and fine motor planning skills.

Teachers must be trained to teach stem education in order for them to attain the “stem”.

A few teachers are qualified to teach STEM education.

Stem educations allow elementary school students to explore concepts together with their teacher and parents (Uttal, Cohen, 2012).

Toshalis & Nakkula (2012) advocate “stem educations” and argue that children are able to investigate things and make discoveries on their own. However, they must be motivated.

Toshalis & Nakkula (2012) state that teachers and parents should be motivated.

Science is the best subject to learn the “stem teaching approach”.

Horgan, (2015). While science education has many unsurpassable benefits, humans should be careful as there are also negative effects.

Horgan (2015) states that while it is important to teach science to our children, there must be caution about extremism.

(2016) discusses extreme science activities and global environmental issues such as global climate change.

Science attributes health issues like drug abuse and lifestyle diseases to global warming (Kossin, et al. 2016).

2016), claims that the excessive use of social media platforms like Facebook and the internet has led to a decline in morals and social fabric.

It is therefore important to encourage children in science learning and development that caters to the interests of the social ties and the environment (Sadler 2011).

Conclusion

Science is the base of life in this universe.

Its applications are found in all walks of life, from schools to homes to the society.

Historical records show that science is dependent on humankind.

Science knowledge has been passed down from one generation of humans to the next.

Modern methods of solving problems have become more efficient.

The stem cell technology can be used to treat certain diseases, such as cancer, leukaemia, and heart disease.

Science education is a way to teach children concepts and knowledge.

Children learn science and become interested in becoming doctors, engineers, and teachers.

Children learn important life skills and become leaders in the future through science.

Teaching science subjects requires that students are actively engaged in the learning process through both class and free time experiments.

Additionally, the approach has to be adjusted to fit the play-based learning style of children.

Science education is beneficial to students because it helps them become responsible and competent people.

The human condition is made better by science and technology, which helps solve problems such as cancer and other fatal diseases.

I challenge those who don’t believe in science education to teach an equivalent subject, capable of performing the same roles as science, namely imparting knowledge and skills that are applicable throughout one’s life.

References

Misconceptions about primary science.

McGraw-Hill Education, UK

The content of science: A constructivist method to its teaching.

From conceptual change to misconceptions.

Science Teacher, 1978(4), 34.

Teaching science in primary schools.

The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age.

Basic Books.

Respond to “comments: Monitoring and understanding trends during extreme storms: state-of-knowledge”

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2016(1): 1177-1179.

Teacher perceptions of writing and reading instruction using play-based developmentalally appropriate practice and constructivist approach.

University of Memphis.

Handbook of research on science education (Vol.

National Research Council.

K-12 STEM education is successful: Finding effective methods in science, technology and engineering.

Practical counselling and helping abilities: text and activities to support the lifeskills counseling model.

Why Young Children Should Be Attracted to Science.

iPS cells technologies: their significance and application to CNS disease and regeneration.

Molecular brain 7(1), 22.

Cosmopolitanism, the age for school reform: Science and education. Making society by making children.

The goal of science education is to make socio-scientific topics relevant in the classroom.

Socioscientific Issues in a Classroom (pp.

Successful STEM education.

Enhancing STEM Curriculum and Instruction: Engaging students and Raising Standards

The handbook of transformative Learning: Theory, research and practice.

John Wiley & Sons.

(2012).

Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future.

A framework for curriculum innovation in science and technology education.

Research in science education, 41(1). 19-38.

University of Texas Arlington.

(September 8, 2017). Importance of science education at schools.

Spatial thinking in STEM education: When? Why? How?

In Psychology of learning & motivation (Vol.

Academic Press.

Caring science: definitions, processes, theory.

William F. Smith & Hashemi J.

Foundations in materials science and engineering.

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