Optimization Of Gasoline Engine Efficiency : LPG Fuel System


This article describes the Optimization of Gasoline Engine Efficiency Using an LPG Fuel System.



The current economic trend of increasing fossil fuel prices means that internal combustion engines need to be more efficient.

Gasoline fuel engines face many challenges due to their properties as low-octane hydrocarbons.

This report will focus on improving the thermal efficiency of a gasoline-powered engine by using an LPG fuel system. It is a sustainable technology for the automotive industry.

The proposed technology is designed to solve the problems facing gasoline engines.

The Quadruple Bottom Line technology is extensively examined.

The report also demonstrates that the technology can be adopted and is viable to solve the problem.

The report concludes with some key recommendations for the sustainability and adoption of the technology.

One of the major challenges facing today’s automobile industry is the rising prices for conventional fuels, such as gasoline.

Reitz (2015), Wilcox (2014) state that fossil fuels represent 33 percent global energy. This means that more than 60 percent are consumed by transportation engines each day out of the estimated 70 million barrels.

It is therefore imperative that engine systems are designed to optimize the fuel injected and draw as much power from it as possible, given the unpredictable oil price.

The technology proposed is an alternative to gasoline because it uses less gasoline in an automobile engine. Instead, it uses LPG fuel which results in a better system.

Second, the issue of energy losses in automobile engines is another.

Efficiency issues are mainly related to the conversion from gasoline fuel to chemical energy and then to mechanical energy.

The following figure shows the most frequent energy loss in a gasoline engine for an automobile.

Depending upon the drive cycle, about 15% of the gasoline fuel energy is used to drive and run vehicle accessories such air conditioning (Kokjohn, Hanson, Splitter, & Reitz, 2011.

Idling and inefficiency of the system can cause a lot of energy to be lost.

More than 62% of gasoline-powered engines’ energy is lost to inefficiency due to internal combustion engine failures (Michalek Papalambros & Skerlos 2004, 2004).

The loss occurs during the conversion of chemical energy from fuel to mechanical energy due wasted heat, pumping, and engine friction.

Ingram (2014) claims that Toyota diesel engines can achieve only 40% thermal efficiency. However, most engines are between 20-30% and 30 percent.

The following image shows a Toyota gasoline-powered engine.

LPG fuel system for optimization of the gasoline engine

The principal reason the technology was developed is because of the problems that gasoline can pose in an automobile’s fuel system.

Gasoline fuel’s volatile nature is one of its challenges. It is a byproduct in crude oil distillation, refinery process (Filipi & Assanis (2000)).

Because gasoline fuel is high in calories, it has several disadvantages.

Furthermore, gasoline fuel doesn’t undergo complete combustion. This leaves behind carbon deposits in its combustion chamber. This can cause environmental pollution such as exhaust (Michalek Papalambros & Skerlos 2004, 2004).

A disadvantage of gasoline engines is their limited compression ratio, which can lead to lower torque.

Rutland (2011) also states that gasoline engines are more likely to produce gum and have lower mileage than LPG systems.

High maintenance costs are another challenge for gasoline engines compared to LPG systems (Dempsey Curran, Wagner, 2016).

This background information about the problems that gasoline engines face, resulting in high inefficiency, makes it necessary to modify the gasoline engine to optimize the fuel utilization to provide the engine the required power.

Modifying the gasoline engine to use the LPG fuel can improve the combustion of the mixture of air and fuel, increasing the engine’s torque.

Technology Design

The technology proposes to maximize the synergy of combining a conventional and non-conventional fuel system.

Alterations to the gasoline engine can be made by adding LPG system to a Four/Two stroke system.

LPG and gasoline are both used as fuels in the engine system.

LPG is pumped from the fuel storage to the adjustable regulator via primary delivery control valve.

The rubber horse is used to inject the fuel. It then enters through a D.C. solenoid valve system.

The solenoid valve uses a separate battery to operate.

For idle start and acceleration, separate copper tubes are attached to the system’s carburetor.

An entirely different gravity feed lubrication arrangement, unlike the petrol engine is used.

The reason is that LPG cannot be mixed with the oil to provide lubrication in different areas of engine system.

Additionally, the arrangement uses the chain sprocket to boost the Four/Two Stroke engines rpm and increase engine efficiency.

The details and design drawings of the system can be found below.

Figure 2: The proposed design in its working details

The Technology’s Working

The fuel-air combination is obtained from the crankcase’s carburetor via the inlet cylinder during the piston upward movement.

When the piston is at the T.D.C., the mixture is compressed and ignited in the cylinder.

During combustion, motion is transferred to the crankshaft by the piston.

The crankcase mixture experiences compression, and is pushed into the cylinder by the transfer valve during the downward motion.

The exhaust valve allows the gases to be pushed out of the cylinder.

The cylinder is then filled with a new charge of the mixture. This completes the Four/Two Strokes. It is known as cross flow scanning.

A complete Four/Two Stroke movement will result in a complete revolution on the crankshaft.

Another distinctive property of this technology is its design of the chain and sprocket.

The sprocket engagement converts the engine’s pulling to rotational power.

The sprockets can have more teeth that the gear system.

The sprocket teeth have no slippage, while the gear teeth are designed for couple and slip against each other.

The sprocket teeth have a different design from the gear teeth to improve the functionality of the system.

The Relevance of The Technology

Due to rising costs of gasoline fuel and new trends in combating environmental pollution, the technology is very relevant for the automobile industry.

LPG engine systems are cheaper and more readily available than their gasoline counterparts.

The new engine system reduces the need for expensive and rare conventional fuels and the risks associated with gasoline-based conventional fuel systems.

Emissions of exhaust gases to the atmosphere are a major concern for gasoline fuel systems.

LPG systems are integrated into gasoline, which reduces the emission of exhaust fumes to the surrounding.

LPG fuels produce comparatively less fumes.

LPG engines have a better combustion rate than gasoline engines and are therefore generally more eco-friendly.

LPG fuel systems are more efficient than the gasoline engines.

LPG engines are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts because they mix well and easily (Murphy (2012)).

LPG engines are not only knock-resistant, but also have less contamination and residue because they almost completely burn.

LPG systems also have low crankcase diluting, which means that they can last longer.

LPG systems offer greater efficiency due to their uniform distribution.

LPG systems have a high octane rating, which results in a greater engine efficiency. This is due to a higher compression ratio of more than 10:1.

Modifying the gasoline engine with LPG is an alternative to the automobile market due to its environmental benefits and optimized injected fuel.

The Sustainability of The Proposed Technology

Quadruple Bottom Line can be used to determine the sustainability of the proposed technology. It uses four sustainability measurement parameters, including Economical, Social and Environmental.

Quadruple Bottom Line



Taxation: The government will submit taxes once the technology has been sold.

Legislation. The technology will not be in violation of any state laws like copyright, patent, trademark.

The technology also will not be used in any way that violates laws, such illegal business.


Mass customization: This design is tailored to the specific needs of each customer with maximum production efficiency and without compromising delivery, quality, or cost.

Personalization: The design can be customized to meet customer specifications, such as engine fuel capacity.


Corporate Social Responsibility: 10% of sales proceeds will be used for community development projects, such as schools, hospitals, or garbage collection

Gender: The production of technology will take into account both disabled employees and female employees.

Pollution: This technology reduces emissions to the atmosphere.

LPG Gas Engines emit less heat than the gasoline engine, but it radiates more heat.

Future Impact of The Technology

The Current Research On The Technology

Research continues to be done on the formation of soot from internal combustion engines that burn gasoline fuels.

These studies are designed to minimize the amount carbon substance left in an engine due to incomplete combustion.

There are also studies that aim to eliminate the knocking phenomenon which can cause problems in gasoline engines.

Studies have also been done on diesel engines (Kusakabe and colleagues, 2014). These studies focus on the combustion of light-duty fuels and the four way catalyst engine systems.

Wang (2013) has also conducted studies to investigate the wear of the main bearings in gasoline engines.

Proposed Developments

Current internal combustion engine developments include the direct injection gasoline fuel in vehicle engines by Yamamoto, Saito, Tomoda and Tomoda (2000).

Devanshu et.al.

Yan, Tseng, Leong (2012) and Yan (2015) are creating a solar powered car using aerodynamic principles.

This is an effort to minimize our dependence on fossil fuels.

Rynne, von Ellenrieder (2010) are also working to develop a wind-powered automobile in order to promote green energy.

These efforts are directed at reducing the harmful effects of automobile industry’s use of petrol and diesel.

Conclusion and recommendation on the sustainability of technology

The technology proposed should be implemented to allow conventional gasoline engines to use LPG gas.

LPG gas is more efficient and reduces environmental pollutants.

LPG gas should not be used as often as gasoline in order to reduce emissions from gasoline engines.

Second, the engine should have the ability to automatically take in both fuels. This is particularly important for situations where one fuel combination runs out and it is difficult to replenish the fuel tank.

Refer to

An overview of the gasoline compression ignition strategies that produce high engine efficiency with low NOx, soot and NOx emissions.

International Journal Of Engine Research.

Aerodynamic Development of a Solar Car.

The effect of stroke-tobore ratio on combustion and heat transfer in an homogeneous charge spark-ignition engine of given displacement.

Toyota Gasoline Engine Obtains 38 Percent Heating Efficiency

Green Car Reports.

Research and development of a Direct Injection Gasoline Motor.

SAE Technical Paper Series.

Fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI), is a route to controlled high efficiency clean combustion.

Injection Quantity Range Improvement by Using Current Waveform Controller Technique for DI Gasoline Isistor.

Gasoline partially premixed combustion, the future for internal combustion engines?

A Study on Fuel Efficiency and Emission Policy Influence on Optimal Vehicle Design.

Murphy, S. (2012).

Great challenges in engine- and automotive engineering.

Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering.

Large-eddy simulations in internal combustion engines: A review.

Preliminary Experimental Validation and Development of a Wind- and Solar-Powered Autonomous Surface Vehicle.

Diagnosis of Main Bearing Wear in Gasoline Engines for Mechanical Engineering.

Grand Challenges in Advanced Fossilfuel Technology

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