## Question:

The resistance of different wire types depends on how they are influenced by different variables.

## Answer:

Introduction

This experiment will examine how various variables can affect resistance in different types and types of wires.

There are several factors that affect the electric current flow from one end to the other using the wire.

These factors include the wire’s cross section, its length, and the metal material.

This experiment examines the influence of the length of a wire on transmitting current.

These wires were chosen to perform the experiment:

Electrons are responsible for the movement of electricity.

These electrons can be excited randomly at the point of power application and they tend to move in a random manner.

Potential difference occurs when the wire is given power.

The electrons will move from high to low concentration regions.

This allows current to be transmitted. Also, to ensure there is unlimited movement throughout the connection, atoms can transfer electrical energy. If an electrical current conducts, only one or two electrons will have sufficient energy to resist the pull from the nucleus.

This pull allows electrons to move quickly and randomly.

Due to collision with other electrons, as well as the positive ions, electrons constantly change the direction of their motion.

These collisions can cause resistance in the circuit’s flow of current.

Because of this, the resistance of the current flowing through a circuit will be affected by how thick or wide a wire is.

Additional restriction of the current’s movement in the circuit can lead to greater resistance and collision.

The experiment is controlled by the thickness and control of the metal wire.

It can be seen that electrons can flow freely in a conducting wire with a greater cross sectional area as shown in figure 1.

A reduced cross-sectional area leads to more electrons drifting and lower resistance.

According to ohm’s law, the resistance will be proportional to its potential difference if it is constant.

This is shown in the following.

You can use the formula to calculate the resistivity for metal wires.

The resistance of a substance is measured in ohms per meter (?-m).

Different tests are performed to determine whether different metals can conduct electricity.

These tests were used to verify that the wires have a constant cross section.

Even when the wire length is altered, it remains constant.

Hypothesis

H1

PROVE: The experiment proves that wires introduce more ion collisions for the length of the wire.

This leads to an increase in resistance.

The additional length means that there are more stationary electrons with which to collide.

As they collide with other electrons for a shorter period, their resistance decreases compared to those traveling over longer wires.

Equipment

Electricity supply

Connecting wires or Crocodile clips

Procedure

As shown in Figure 2, the connections between the components listed above are as follows:

To minimize possible variables, the setup was made in a room at constant temperature during one test period.

The wire resistor had to be held taut; measurements were taken from this reading.

The crocodile clips were attached at the desired length to the wire.

The readings were recorded and then repeated in increments 10 centimeters each over the variable lengths of 90cm to50cm.

Five different readings per length were done, each wire was adjusted for the power source’s strength.

The component’s current is measured by the ammeter, which is connected in series. The voltmeter measures its voltage when it is connected in parallel.

Experimental Precaution

To avoid wire burnout due to high voltages, it is necessary to place a fireproof pad underneath the wire resistor.

This is due to the thermal energy, which heats the wire to very high temperatures and could lead to burnout.

The length differences are affected by the wire malleability, which can be either the positive or the negative.

Results and observation

Here are the five test results that were obtained when the length of wire resistors was varied according to length.

The table below shows the average resistances of each length for wires using gradients calculated by the line with the best fit.

Average Resistance (ohmsO)

Wires (20swg).

Copper

Constantine

The graph below shows the relationship of the various materials used in the tests, and their resistance as they increased in length.

The graphs were plotted to show the voltage against current.

One can calculate the resistances using ohm’s laws.

For each material, the “line-of-best fit” method is applied to get a constant line.

The average resistance can be seen as the gradient of the line.

Because it removes the effects of anomalies, the line of best fit is preferred to the exact averages. It also allows trends for to become more prominent.

The wires’ lengths varied based on their malleability, and our ability to straighten them as much as we could.

+/- 1 cm

+/- 0.25 cm

Below is the graph

Discussion

While the results provide answers and trends to the research question in general, the experiment was plagued by several issues.

These problems were common among copper wires, and these complications reflect on the data it provided.

The first problem was the power supply, which didn’t produce the right voltage and didn’t provide a constant amount of current.

The power source was not giving out the correct voltage and didn’t provide constant current. We tried to fix this problem by adding an adjustable resistor, but that did not work because of mechanical error.

An additional issue with equipment was the inability of alligator clips to attach instruments securely.

These led to circuits that would sometimes fail or give inconsistent results.

Due to its effects on the resistance of wire, generated thermal heat was another problem.

This happens because the temperature increases, which causes the atoms vibrate with more energy, and thus vibrate more vigorously. The electrons that flow through an electric circuit are more likely to collide, which in turn leads to increased resistance.

This is what caused the copper wire to heat up so quickly. It was heating up because of its non-linear results that had no clear trends.

Figure 4 illustrates a trend where the resistance increases as the length is increased.

This is directly consistent with the hypothesis I stated earlier.

This shows how the wire length is reduced allows current to flow under lower resistance. Inverse for longer lengths.

Use the formula R =RL/A to find the resistivity or conductivity of wires. This formula is derived using the resistance formula R=V/I.

Cross-sectional area, resistance, length and resistivity (r), as well as cross-sectional area (A) are the values.

Use the following formula to calculate:

The gradient (m), starting at y=mx+c:

Formula to derive the solution for r

Where resistivity (r), 1/conductivity(s)

Refer to Appendix 2 if you need graphs that show length in metres

Figure 5: m= 0.0194

r =0.0194×0.0006567

Figure 6. m = 2.3562

r =2.3562×0.0006567

Figure 7: m = 0.8943

r =0.8943x 0.0006567

r =

The current passing through a component is determined by its potential difference and its resistance.

This is called Potential Difference = Current x Resist.

Future recordings can be improved by making changes to the design and procedure of the experiment.

You must control the heating effect of the current and keep it at a constant temperature.

You can make the wires straighter by making sure they are firm. This will reduce distortions and help you get precise measurements.

Concusion

The hypothesis was confirmed as true by the results and the analysis section.

These results indicate a trend that confirms an increase in resistance to current flow.

This trend was evident in all of the materials used for the experiment, as illustrated in the graphical illustration below the results and observation section.

The law of ohms holds, and it is used for determining the relationship between the length and resistivity of a wire.

Referneces