Here are the requirements to write a research paper.
From the four options, choose one topic to research
Research on the subject you have chosen.
Three resources should be identified and reported on.
At least one resource should be new.
There are many resources available in the various units. These resources can be used to guide you. Be sure to also check the NAEYC Library for additional materials and the Unit-specific supplemental resources.
You are welcome to include these resources in your paper.
But, you must also show that you have used at least one additional resource.
All Phases according to the Given
Unit 1: Look at the topics listed below.
Unit 2: Select and submit a topic you are interested in exploring more deeply.
Unit 3: Conduct research. List three resources that you have found.
Units 3-6 : Actively research and draft the paper.
Unit 6: Optional – Submit a written draft of your research paper
Unit 7: Read and use the instructor’s feedback regarding the initial draft.
The “Evaluation rubric” is used to help you write your research paper.
Over the course of the seven weeks, make sure you read the rubric criteria. It will guide you in how to evaluate your project: before, during, and after you write. Then, revise your original draft with the instructor’s feedback.
Inclusion in Special Education
Different regions of the globe have different child discrimination laws. Children can be discriminated on the basis their gender, class, or ethnicity.
But it is essential to recognize that every child has the right to feel included and given equal opportunities to learn and grow.
In schools, children should not feel isolated because they have a disability. Teachers and their peers are responsible for making sure the child feels included.
For children with special education, inclusive education is crucial. It creates a supportive, caring environment where all children can learn, play, and improve their cognitive development.
The school is the first time a child interacts with others outside their immediate family. Thus, inclusive education in early childhood would allow a child to have healthy and positive relationships with other members the society (Dyson & Associates 2001).
Children with disabilities and special needs are considered marginalized groups and being segregated would only further alienate and isolate them.
Definition of Inclusion
One definition of inclusion is the practice of embracing certain values and principles that guarantees all children (including their families) the right to participate in a wide range of activities, as full members of society (Cologon 2013).
These activities will help children grow and develop.
To foster positive relationships with others in society, healthy friendships and optimal learning, it is important to implement a policy of inclusion in the early stages.
Inclusion would mean that children from different backgrounds would study and play together at the same school and would participate in the same activities.
The idea of inclusion is based upon the notion that children with different backgrounds would bring something to the classroom.
Parents and children would feel more secure and protected in this environment.
Additionally, such institutions are expected to hire trained staff members capable of providing the children with special care and nutrition.
Federal Laws and Ideas Concerning Inclusion
Section 504 of both the Rehabilitation Act (and the Americans with Disabilities Act) makes it mandatory that schools and other educational establishments provide equal opportunities for students, regardless of disability (Cortiella & Horowitz (2014)).
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, supports inclusion in educational institutions and encourages inclusion programs in the natural environment of children.
IDEA, a federal law that was amended in 2004 does not make inclusion compulsory for schools or similar institutions. However, it insists on a less restrictive educational environment for these children to meet their unique and varied needs. (Special Education Inclusion, 2018).
The IDEA also recognizes that some students might not find such facilities appropriate. Separate recommendations are made in this instance.
To aid students, schools may need to provide housing facilities.
This act provides a continuum that ensures each student’s needs can be met.
Federal Law Recommendations with Regards to Inclusion
The Individual with Disabilities Education Act, section 1400(5), states that it is possible to enhance the development of children if they are included in regular classrooms with their peers.
Because it encourages both cognitive and social growth, the federal law recommends inclusion at all educational institutions.
In the same way, section 1412(a),(5) provides that special needs children between the ages three and twenty-one would be able to receive benefits from an environment that is fully inclusive to one that is completely independent, with many levels or stages between (“Special Education Inclusion”, 2018,).
The Different Models Of Inclusion
Inclusive Education is a comprehensive review of how children are educated at school and the support available for children with special learning needs.
It is essential that curriculum and education programs be designed in a way that meets the needs of all children.
Every child should feel included in the classroom’s activities, and be able to take part.
Teachers have come up with models like SCREAM or PASS variable that allow children to actively participate in the classroom activities. These models all follow the core principles and values of inclusive education.
These models are based upon the belief that every child is capable of learning and should be protected from being denied (Lipsky & Gartner, 1995).
The PASS variable stands for prioritize, adapt and SCREAM. It is commonly used in classrooms to promote inclusive education in order optimize the learning process of children with special abilities (Scruggs & Maltropieri, 1995).
A teacher should have a plan for instruction. The curriculum objectives are to be the top priority.
These objectives would consider the teaching methods, subjects, and criteria used to determine student achievement.
A teacher’s work is classified based on these objectives.
A teacher must plan the sequence of lessons and its scope.
While the latter includes the content of the curriculum, it is the first that specifies how they will be implemented in class (Van Laarhoven, et al. 2007).
Teachers are expected to design curriculum that addresses the individual needs of every child.
This means that teachers must adapt to students’ changing needs. To put it simply, the curriculum or instruction material should be flexible enough to conform to the policy for inclusive education.
SCREAM stands as structure, clarity, redundancy, enthusiasms and appropriate rate.
This model is an effective teaching tool that promotes inclusive education. It’s described in more detail in the section below.
Teacher should use appropriate measures to evaluate the performance of each student in a systematic manner.
The teacher would be able to see the progress of each student and determine if there are areas that need improvement.
One of the greatest benefits of such a model, is its ability to encompass all challenges that students may face in the classroom.
Teachers are also instructed to use the model to help them create a cohesive module. This would facilitate student evaluations and class assignments.
However, the PASS variable doesn’t emphasize the inclusive nature and tends to generalize students.
The PASS variable also includes the SCREAM model. This is a specialized tool teachers can use to organize their curriculum and enrich the content of their instruction.
Structure – Every lesson should have a clearly defined structure. This must be communicated with students.
Clarity – The teacher should be clear about the point that he/she is trying to make.
You can ensure that students get the point of the teacher by giving them visual examples. (Chesebro, McCroskey, 1998).
Redundancy: Children are more attentive than adults.
It is possible to convey the lesson better if teachers repeat key points frequently or are willing to clarify any doubts.
Enthusiasm: Enthusiasm can be a two-way street. This means that students will be more likely to accept education if their teacher or educator is enthusiastic about the lesson.
The teacher must be able to motivate and encourage students to communicate in class.
Maximizing student engagement – Students should be given more time to complete a task or assignment.
A student who spends more time learning or working on a specific task will be better equipped to learn (Skinner & Belmont – 1993).
Due to its benefits, the SCREAM method is commonly used in classrooms.
For example, it provides guidelines on how teachers should approach a topic or subject.
A teacher who adheres to this guideline can maximize student engagement.
This model, however, has one drawback. It does not take into consideration the unique needs of students with special disabilities.
The SCREAM model, in conjunction with a coteaching policy, would be recommended to provide an inclusive education.
Model that is inclusive for children with special needs
A IEP (individualized education program) is recommended for children with disabilities.
A program like this pays attention to each student’s individual needs, regardless of their disability (Grigal et.al., 1997).
This allows special needs children to have the same access to support as their peers in class.
An IEP is a type of written plan in which the weekly and annual goals, as well as the evaluation methods short-term and longer-term objectives, are listed.
According to the Individual with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, an IEP must be created or written each year for children with disabilities (Yell. Shriner. & Katsiyannis 2006).
An IEP team would include the general teacher, special education teacher, and the school administrator. All of these people are responsible for examining or assessing the child.
Strategies to work with families of children who have special needs
When working with children with disabilities, it’s important to recognize the contribution of their families.
Early childhood educators are expected to work together with the families to achieve the best results possible for their children (Spann Kohler & Soenksen (2003)).
Keep these two things in mind:
The instructors and families must keep in touch.
The instructors should take all necessary steps to share pertinent information with the families. This would include the mission, the schedule for the day, and sheets tracking the child’s daily progress.
In order to determine if there are any developmental delays, the instructor should monitor the children’s progress every day.
It would be necessary to inform the parents about this situation and to devise a plan to correct it.
The Teacher would be asked to adjust the Curriculum accordingly:
Weekly meetings would be held with parents, in which teachers and parents can discuss concerns and brainstorm ways to solve them.
Teacher would be expected to meet one-on-1 with each student and give performance tasks that will help evaluate the students’ progress.
The Age and Stage Questionnaire, which is a simple tool to measure development delay, can be used. It’s meant for parents of children between 2-6 years of age.
These questions can be used to test problem solving skills as well as cognitive skills. This will help teachers understand the student’s developmental stage.
In conclusion, we can say that an inclusive education can foster growth and development for children with disabilities.
Despite social stigma, children with disabilities are not any different than other children their age.
These are the reasons why it would not be fair to deny them their basic education.
Discrimination can often be a problem for these children, even in schools or educational institutions.
According to the IDEA and federal law, schools should follow inclusive education systems in order for children with disabilities to have the same opportunities as their non-disabled peers.
Instructors are responsible for ensuring that every child is met. This includes including families in a strong strategy.
The relationship between teacher clarity, teacher immediacy, and students’ experiences of state receiver anxiety.
This reference recognizes the importance to introduce subjects in the classroom clearly, which is an integral component of the PASS variable.
Inclusion in education: To achieve equality for students who are disabled.
This refers to the importance and value of an inclusive education. Children with disabilities deserve the same opportunities to learn, study, and grow as their non-disabled peers.
The state and future of learning disabilities: Facts. Trends. Emerging issues.
New York: The National Center for Learning Disability, 2-45.
This study examines trends in inclusive education as they are seen in various organizations around the globe.
The federal law governing inclusive education is also covered in this reference.
Special needs in the twenty first century: Where have we been, and where are you going?
British Journal of Special Education, 24, 24.
This reference examines the relationship between inclusion, social inclusion, and a review of the history special needs education.
It provides a review of the history of special education as well as a glimpse at where we are now and what lies ahead.
This reference can also be used to discuss both an optimistic approach and a pessimistic one.
Special education in an era that values inclusion.
Psychology of Education Review 34(2), 22-29.
This guide takes a look back at special education and shows where it is headed.
This reference examines special education’s strengths and weaknesses.
This document also looks at the reasons why the UK isn’t as special as it is in America.
Making sense of IDEA’s inclusion debate.
It examines the effect of IDEA on special needs children’s inclusion debate.
We will discuss the need for these laws through IDEA. It will also be addressed how we were with it and the future impact of the law on special needs kids.
Evaluation of transition components of individual education programs.
Exceptional children, 63(3): 357-372.
This reference explores IEP (individualized education programs) as an inclusion model, which must be used in the classroom.
It ensures that children with disabilities have their individual needs met.
Evaluation of Inclusive Education Programs.
NCERI Bulletin, 2(2) n2.
This guide examines inclusive education techniques and individualized education programs according to federal law.
What makes special education so special?
The PASS variables are used to evaluate inclusion programs.
The Journal of Special Education 29, 224-233.
This reference examines case studies from elementary special education classrooms and reveals what works in different inclusion settings.
The case studies focus on a full inclusion programme for children with learning difficulties and how these children are getting special education.
Some children may not be receiving the appropriate monitoring or instruction they require.
Motivation in the classroom – Reciprocal effects between teacher behavior and student engagement over the school year.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571.
This study examines how a healthy relationship between student and teacher can motivate students and help them understand and learn more quickly.
Interview with parents in a parent support program: Examining parents’ participation in special education and their perceptions.
Focus on autism, developmental disabilities, 18(4). 228-237.
This refers to the involvement of parents in special educational services.
It emphasizes the need for parents to work with educators in order to improve the learning experience.
Special Education Inclusion
This website provides an overview of special education, the scope of the subject and the policy of inclusion that should be followed by schools and teachers alike.
Principals’ and teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion and self-efficacy.
Learning Disabilities – A Contemporary Journal, 12(2).
This reference examines educators’ attitudes towards inclusive education.
This reference also examines how educators approach inclusive education and how they implement the models.
A model for pre-service teachers in special and general education for inclusive education.
Journal of Teacher Education, 1958(5): 440-455.
This document provides guidance for teachers to create a study plan that is tailored to each student’s needs.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and IDEA regulations 2006: Implications and implications for educators, administrators, teachers trainers.
Focus on exceptional kids, 39(1), 1–24.
This reference examines the IDEA regulations for 2004 and 2006 in great detail and includes all the recommendations.
This reference also focuses on the importance of personalized education programs in inclusive education.