VMED260 Neuroscience


Discuss how important discoveries in the last 250 years have helped to establish modern neuroscience.



Humans have always been curious about their nature and the origins of our existence, as far back as human history goes.

The historical scientists must have understood the origins of the thought process in order to answer the question, “Who am I?”

This essay examines the important discoveries in neuroscience that have laid the foundations for modern neuroscience.

The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus contains the earliest documented reference to the brain. It was published in the 17th Century.

The papyrus includes seven reports on the hieroglyph for brain. They also describe the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients suffering from head injuries or compounded skull cracks (van Middendorp Sanchez & Burridge 2010, 2010).

Antonio Maria Valsalva published 1704 the anatomy of ears.

His name is associated the Valsalva antarrum of the ear, and the Valsalva maneuver. They are used to assess circulatory function.

The author was also able to remove a dog’s renal and opposed cauterization in wound healing. He instead recommended the humane treatment for sick patients (Wiest (2015)).

Antony made significant contributions to microscopy. He created more than 25 single-lens microscopes.

Jean Astruc first described reflex in 1736.

John Augustus Unzer was the first person to scientifically describe reflex in 1799 (Niklasson (2012)).

Herophilus, a Hippocrates follower, described the structures of the various parts of the brain, tendons and nerves as well as sections of the eye.

From the time of Hirophilus to the end of the dark ages, it was not possible to prove that the brain has different functions in different places.

The ban on human dissection was enforced during these times, which prevented scientific research into the structure and functioning of the human brain.

Julien Jean Cesar, who had demonstrated that the brain’s’medulla was a respiratory centre, developed certain theories about how to localize the role of the human mind in the 18th century.

Franz Josef Gall, German physician and neuroanatomist, believed that all mental functions and behavior could be due to certain processes in specific parts of the brain.

In the 1800s, scientists such as Adolf Beck (Hans Berger), Emst Fleischl vom Marxov, Hans Berger and Richard Canton demonstrated that electrical current can also be recorded from the skull. The difference between the two is dependent on the animal’s activity level, Kambi & Jain (2012).

The patients were sometimes able to recall an event from the past, when their temporal lobes had been stimulated.

This was a strong indication that the temporal brain is crucial for memory.

Another important discovery in neuroscience is that cells also make up the brain.

Mathias Jacob Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, and Mathias Jacob Schleiden developed the cell theory. It was not extended to brain cells.

Golgi invented the staining technique in 1873. Cajal used this method to demonstrate that the nervous systems is composed of functionally separated cells.

Luigi Galvani discovered the nerve and its linked muscles in a lifeless frog twitched when the electric device was charged.

According to the author animal charges were carried through the nerve and into the tissue, causing it to contract.

Luigi Galvani’s discovery of brain cells communicating with each other led to further research by Emil DuBoisReymond, Johannes Muller and others.

These researchers found that the mind/soul could interact with the body through the electrical nature in the brain-body interactions (Muller Wille 2010, 2010).


Intuitive research by historian scientists has led to a deep understanding of brain function and the possibility that the mind could emerge from it.

Modern neuroscience is able to draw on scientific discoveries from the early seventeenth-century.

Neuroscience is being further explored thanks to technological advancements.


Myelin: The history.

New landmarks in neurosciences.

Cell theory, specificity, reproduction, 1837-1870.

Studies in

History and Philosophy of Science Part A: Studies In History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Science. 41(3), 225-231.

Could motor development be an emerging property of vestibular?

How can stimulation be combined with primary reflex inhibition?

Sensorimotor therapy: A tentative approach.

The Edwin Smith Papyrus:

This is a clinical reappraisal to the oldest documented document on spinal injuries.

European Spine Journal, 19 (11), 1815-1823.

The origins of vestibular sciences.

Annals of the New York Academy of Science

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