GPHL 110 Philosophy


Write an essay on any of the following topics.

1.Descartes argues for the existence God in his Third Meditation.

Explain in your own words the steps and how they fit into the Meditations. Do you think the argument is effective?

Defend your answer.

2.In the Sixth Meditation Descartes gives reasons to believe that mind and matter are fundamentally different substances.

Does Descartes’ conclusion that mind must be an immaterial substance completely separate from body matter is supported by solid evidence?

You can defend your answer.


He is often considered the first modern philosopher, as a French mathematician and scientist.

Descartes is known for his important connection between algebra and geometry. He discovered ways to solve geometrical issues through algebraic equations.

Meditationes De Prima Philosophia is the most well-known of his works. It is also known as Meditations On First Philosophy.

Six meditations in the book are used to discredit beliefs that are not entirely truthful and that are not certain.

The writing is based upon the potentials of science, but with philosophical underpinnings.

This essay will focus on Descartes’ sixth meditation. It explains why it believes that mind and body can be two distinct substances.

Descartes’ belief that mind must exist in an immaterial substance separate from the body is also discussed.

Argument summary: Titled as “The existence and real distinction between mind, body” the sixth meditation is the final meditation that can be said to be true.

The sixth meditation begins by the meditator contemplating the existence of material objects.

Descartes (2008) addresses this meditation and discusses the possibility that material exists outside of God or the self (Descartes 2008.

He focuses first on the objects that have been around since God created them.

Therefore, knowledge that a human being has about the physical world around them is non-theoretical.

Because they are pure mathematics’ subject matter, the existence of material objects cannot be denied.

It holds truths that are easily understood from faraway and seem to be unambiguous.

Descartes gave two reasons for the existence and function of material things.

The faculty of imagination is used to support the first argument about the existence and existence of material things. The senses are used for the second argument.

Descartes first distinguishes between imagination pure and imagination.

Descartes explained his understanding of the triangle by explaining how it is a triangular figure that derives various properties from the same understanding.

Descartes can view these properties using an imagination. He does this by seeing a triangle in his mind.

However, it’s important that the imagination is not too clear when a picture of 1000 sides is imagined.

It can be difficult to see all of the figures, and it is even harder to identify the image that is the only one among the 999 side figures.

It is only mathematical relationships that allow for a complete understanding of all features of the figures.

Although it can be difficult to imagine the mind, it is possible to create it.

It is therefore crucial to place the trust in imagination for its existence on something greater than mind.

The mediator assumes that imagination is linked with the body. Therefore, it allows the mind to imagine objects that are corporeal in their natural form.

The mind travels towards the body to comprehend and imagine.

While the meditator is in agreement that this is a secure connection, it does not provide concrete evidence to prove the existence and existence of the body.

Descartes talks about his perception through the senses.

Descartes believes there is a physical body that exists in a world and is capable of experiencing pleasure and pain, emotions, hunger, and other needs.

It is capable of recognising other bodies through extension, smell and taste.

Descartes thinks that external perceptions are common.

These perceptions are voluntarily created by the brain and are much more vivid than his mental images.

It is also important that he knew this fact. The feelings could not have been created voluntarily.

It is common to view these feelings as the basis of sensory ideas similar to the concepts, even though it does not happen involuntarily.

This perspective allows one to convince others that all knowledge can’t be obtained through the senses.

Evaluation: Descartes considers the term ‘body’ to be counter-intuitive. Therefore, it is interrelated to the field physics that is not mentioned explicitly in Meditation.

The commentary piece will be different depending on what text it actually refers to in order to clarify certain concepts of Cartesian physicalism.

The primary attribute of the body is its extension. This claim is the foundation of Cartesian physics. To understand the body, there is not much else.

The term ‘Extension’ describes itself as being extended in time. Accordingly, the body is only something that lives in space.

Descartes, an exceptional mathematician and creator of the coordinate system as well as analytic geometry that bears his name, was a remarkable man.

Descartes’ highly mathematical physics should be understood as the body.

According to Desecrate, there was little difference between geometry and physics as well as bodies or empty spaces.

Descartes defines geometry as the mathematical formalization for extended substances.

There is no distinction between geometry or physics if the body does not exist as an extension.

The same way, even if space was empty, it would be extended. Space is only as the material objects.

You should also remember that two bodies cannot occupy the same space.

If two bodies share the same space, they should possess the same extension. That means the body would have the same length since it has no other function than to extend.

Descartes’s physics had one major problem. It didn’t provide an explanation of what causes things to move.

The body is simply an extension and poses questions regarding energy or force.

You can find the answers to your questions in it.

The force that drives every object is a result of God. But, the answer is not from God.

God has also re-constructed the entire world in every instance where it is possible to interpret illusions as changes.

Thirdly, God is responsible for creating the natural laws of the universe.

Descartes argument on the existence and function of body can be discussed based on two strategies.

He can demonstrate the existence and support of reasons for body.

He vividly stated that the primary feature of body was an extension.

Descartes’ arguments on imaginations and senses provide an explanation for his intellectual faculties being linked to things that were external to the mind.

Descartes’ argument using the imaginations to prove the existence of the body was only an assumption, but the argument on the senses was quite satisfying.

Alternatively, his strategies in his writing on Physics were to prove that the body exists and is basically extended. That creates the entire physical explanation for the universe.

If this perspective is complete and satisfying, there is no room for doubting or questing the view that the body is actually extended.

Descartes’ six meditations concern the existence of physical things.

Descartes, in his first meditation, had tentatively denied that fact.

He initially denied that the concept existed because it was pure mathematics.

Descartes believed that God could bring any object into being, but that it could also be possible to do so through the faculty of imagination.

Accordingly, “an application by the knowing faculty to an body intimately present” the imagination was not significant to Descartes. He believed he would continue to be the same without the imagination.

His belief is that imagination is not necessary. He believes that understanding the mind can think of the ideas. In imagination, the mind can intuit things in the body similar to ideas that have been either perceived by sense or understood through the mind.

He believes that the body is not negotiable but is an extended form.

While Descartes’s perspective is clear, it is also important that we remember that he was an engineer who saw the world in the same way.

His Meditation on First Philosophy was a representation of the same.

His thoughts, whether or not he recognized it, were linked to other thinking or imaginations that were different from his senses. This provides concrete evidence of the existence and existence of the body.

Meditations on first philosophy. With selections from objections and responses.

Oxford University Press.

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